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Alkanes – saturated hydrocarbons. The names The halogen is treated as a substituent on an alkane chain. Alkenes and Alkynes – unsaturated hydrocarbons. Organic: Nomenclature–Alkanes, Alkenes, & Alkynes.  . Other Actions. Embed Nomenclature: Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes. basic IUPAC naming. The nomenclature for alkanes is based on To name an alkane, first identify the .

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Longer chains are named as follows: Alkenes are abundant in the essential oils of trees and other plants. Thank You for Your Contribution! Answer a 1-pentene or pentene Answer b 2-ethylhexene or 2-ethylhexene. Aliphatic hydrocarbons View More.

These are shown below. Polyethylene alkeje a member of one subset of synthetic polymers classified as plastics. Location of the hydrogen atoms: If there is a choice in numbering not previously covered, the parent chain is numbered to give the substituents the lowest number at the first point of akene.

Help us improve this article! In most cases, the names of stereoisomeric alkenes are distinguished alkyje cis – trans notation. Approximately one-half of the ethylene is used to prepare polyethylene. Stereoisomerism is therefore possible in those alkenes in which neither carbon atom bears two identical substituents.

22.2: Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatics

Alkenes and alkynes, on the other hand, are unsaturated hydrocarbons. It is correct to also name this compound as 1-ethenylcyclohexene.

Triple bonds are named in a similar way using the suffix -yne. Most of the remainder is utilized to make ethylene oxide for the manufacture of ethylene glycol antifreeze and other productsvinyl chloride for polymerization to polyvinyl chlorideand styrene for polymerization to polystyrene. Hydrogen atoms are not drawn if they are attached to a carbon. Benzene, C nomenclture H 6is the simplest member of a large family of hydrocarbons, called aromatic hydrocarbons.

Since there are two carbon-containing groups attached to the two carbon atoms in the double bond—and they are on the same side of the double bond—this molecule is the cis- isomer, making the name of the starting alkene cis pentene. The numbers should go from lowest to highest, and be separated from one another by a comma. Resources and power applications aerosol containers In aerosol container chemical industries In chemical industry: A common name would be 1-vinylcyclohexene. Z zusammen means the higher priority groups are on the same side relative to the double bond.


The existence of so many organic molecules is a consequence of the ability of carbon atoms to form up to four strong bonds to other carbon atoms, resulting in chains and rings of many different sizes, shapes, and complexities.

The open bonds in the methyl and ethyl groups indicate that these alkyl groups are bonded to another atom. Ethylene is formed in small amounts as a plant hormone.

Alkenes and Alkynes – unsaturated hydrocarbons Double bonds in hydrocarbons are indicated by replacing the suffix -ane with -ene. The position of the hydroxyl group s on the parent chain is are indicated by placing the number s corresponding to the location s on the parent chain directly in front of the base name same as alkenes.

Here is a simple list of rules to follow.

Nomenclature of Alkenes – Chemistry LibreTexts

References Vollhardt, Peter, and Neil E. There was a problem with your submission. These three representations of the structure of n-butane are not isomers because they all contain the same arrangement of atoms and bonds. When both double bonds and carbonyl groups are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -al suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene. They are always a part of some larger molecule.

Combustion is one such reaction:. When both double bonds and carbonyl groups are present, the -en suffix follows the parent chain directly and the -one suffix follows the -en suffix notice that the e is left off, -en instead of -ene.

The ending -o replaces -ide at the end of the name of an electronegative substituent in ionic compounds, the negatively charged ion ends with -ide like chloride; in organic compounds, such atoms are treated as substituents and the -o ending is used. Over million tons of ethylene were produced worldwide in for use in the polymer, petrochemical, and plastic industries. The four-carbon chain is numbered from the end with the chlorine atom.

There are many derivatives of benzene. Notice that the carbon atoms in the structural models the ball-and-stick and space-filling models of the pentane molecule do not lie in a straight line. If the double bond is not terminal if it is on a carbon somewhere in the center of the chain then the carbons should be numbered in such a way as to give the first of the two double-bonded carbons the lowest possible number, and that number should precede the “ene” suffix with a dash, as shown below.


Plastic recycling is the process of recovering waste, scrap, or used plastics, and reprocessing the material into useful products. Ethylene the common industrial name for ethene is a basic raw material in the production of polyethylene and other important compounds.

Hydrocarbon – Nomenclature of alkenes and alkynes |

The bromine at position 2 will be described by adding 2-bromo-; this will come at the beginning of the name, since bromo- comes before chloro- alphabetically.

When more than one substituent is present, either on the same carbon atom or on different carbon atoms, the substituents are listed alphabetically. If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. They differ from the six hydrogen alkkene of the first type in that they are bonded to a carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms.

Submarine hydrocarbons petroleum In petroleum sedimentary rocks In sedimentary rock: Hence, as with alkanes, a consistent nomenclature system needs to be adopted that can separate the nature of these unsaturated chemicals. The location of the double bond s is are indicated nojenclature the parent name as before, and the location of the carbonyl group s is are indicated between the -en and -one suffixes.

In addition, allane of…. Greater numbers of atoms in the molecules will lead allane stronger intermolecular attractions dispersion forces and correspondingly different physical properties of the molecules. The C—Cl portion of the chloroethane molecule is an example of a functional groupthe part or moiety of a molecule that imparts a specific chemical reactivity.